Do let us know if you spot any on the site. In males, the horns can be as long as 40 cm and are mainly used in defending a territory and for mate attraction. All of these went extinct following the arrival of humans. The riverine rabbit, roan antelope and wild dog are endangered. South African Plants – What Kind of Plants Live in South Africa? Cheetahs are mainly active during the day with hunting as the main activity. Extant tree sloths fall into two groups that are not closely related, and which do not form a clade; two-toed sloths are much more closely related to some extinct ground sloths than to three-toed sloths. The manatees are the only extant afrotherians in the Americas. However, a number proboscid species, some of which survived until the arrival of Paleoindians, once inhabited the region. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be kept short by gnawing. ADDO brings all available knowledge together of Africa's 770 known species of Odonata. The ossicones are necessary for thermoregulation and also used as a combat between the males. Gemsboks are grazers but also browse during the dry season. Marsupials are a collection of pouched mammals that was once more widely distributed. It has 4-12 white stripes along the torso with the head darker in color than the rest of the body. Anthropogenic climate change and the damage to its ecosystems resulting from the rapid recent growth of the human population pose a further threat to South America's biodiversity. In Groundbreaking Find, Three Kinds of Early Humans Unearthed Living Together in South Africa The different hominid species, possibly including … South America's felid diversity is also greater than that of North America north of Mexico, while its mustelid diversity is comparable and its mephitid and ursid diversities are lower. Cape buffalo’s main predator is the lion. The rhinos are contained in protected areas such as Kruger National Park. They prey on birds, lizards, and mammals. No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. Here are some of the animals native to South Africa. There are several animal species that are among the world’s tallest, fastest or even tiniest animals such as the majestic giraffe, the speedy cheetah or the tiny pygmy shrew.. Several animal species are endangered such as the African wild dogs, the oribi or the rhino which is hunted for its horn. Therefore, all endangered species of South Africa may not be listed here. There are two species of spring hare, the South African and East African springhare. They are usually large to very large, and have relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. South Africa is one of the most incredible destinations worldwide for watching marine mammals. [n 2] Conversely, sciurids make up 3% of rodents in South America, 8% in Central America, 15% in Mexico and 31% in North America north of Mexico, while castorimorphs are 1%, 16%, 26% and 28%, respectively. It has a blackish stripe that extends from the chin to the lower part of the neck. The Giant Eagle Owl lives up to its … The tsessebe can live up to a maximum of 15 years and mainly graze on grassland and open plains. The bushveld and savanna regions of South Africa are homes to large numbers of wildlife. The monito del monte of Chile and Argentina is the only extant member of its family and the only surviving member of an ancient order, Microbiotheria. The newcomers out-competed and drove to extinction many mammals that had evolved during South America's long period of isolation, as well as some species from other classes (e.g., terror birds). Equids died out in both North and South America around the time of the first arrival of humans, while tapirs died out in most of North America but survived in Central and South America. The head-to-body length can be as long as 1.2 feet. The tusks are used for protection and a tool for digging. The species is not currently at risk of extinction in the wild. Note/Disclaimer: This list is made possible through a database keyword search/filtering process which may not be 100% accurate. [8] More recently, ancestral sigmodontine rodents[9] apparently island-hopped from Central America 5 million or more years ago,[10][11][12] prior to the formation of the Panamanian land bridge. The order Pilosa is confined to the Americas and contains the tree sloths and anteaters (which include the tamanduas). The males have prominent manes that grow around the neck, shoulder, and covers part of the head. Today they are found primarily in isolated or formerly isolated continents of Gondwanan origin. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals. Although they are terrestrial, they can swim as well. Opossums probably diverged from the basic South American marsupials in the late Cretaceous or early Paleocene. There is inadequate information to assess the risk of extinction for this species. (Some west coastal South American forms had even evolved into marine sloths.) Caviomorphs, the first rodents to reach the continent, are believed to have washed ashore after rafting across the Atlantic from Africa over 30 million years ago. They are small to medium-sized marsupials, about the size of a large house cat, with a long snout and prehensile tail. [1][2][3] All the remaining nonflying mammals of South America are recent arrivals, having migrated from North America via Central America during the past seven million years as part of the Great American Interchange; this invasion, which peaked around three million years ago, was made possible when the formation of the volcanic Isthmus of Panama bridged North and South America. All 21 extant species are found in South America, where they originated. Lions are one of the Big Five animals. The species does not qualify as being at high risk of extinction but is likely to do so in the future. Notable endemic varieties include the Black Oystercatcher, Blue Crane, Cape Parrot, Cape Vulture, Forest Canary, Ground Woodpecker, Jackal Buzzard, Knysna Turaco, Namaqua Sandgrouse, Protea Seedeater, Southern Bald Ibis, Southern Pale Chanting Goshawk, Whitebacked Mousebird, and the Yellow-breasted Pipit. South America is filled with mammals from North America, but why more didn’t survive the reverse trip has been a natural history mystery. Today, its total number is decreasing due to hunting and habitat loss. The endemic mammal species here include Cape Grysbok, the Cape Elephant Shrew, the Cape Horseshoe Bat, the Spectacled African Dormouse, and the Cape Mole-rat while other endemic species include the Riverine Rabbit and three types of golden mole: Chrysospalax, Cryptochloris, and Neamblysomus. The cheetah is the fastest land animal and can attain a speed of 70 mph. There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which feed primarily on meat. South America also once had a great diversity of ungulates of native origin, but these dwindled after the interchange with North America, and disappeared entirely following the arrival of humans. The Giant Eland Antelope. All South American monkeys are believed to be descended from ancestors that rafted over from Africa about 25 million years ago in a single dispersal event. The puff adder is a venomous viper species common throughout Africa except in the Sahara Desert and rainforest region. Only the tapeti is present south of northern South America; lagomorphs are absent from most of South America's southern cone. Verified Purchase. Elephant. The country is also home to some of the lesser known animals like the tsessebe and suni. South America's 20 genera of nonhuman primates compares with 6 in Central America, 15 in Madagascar, 23 in Africa and 19 in Asia. During the early Cenozoic, South America's only land connection was to Antarctica, so it was effectively cut off from most of the world; as the fragments of G… It is the fastest antelope in Africa and can attain a speed of up to 90 km/h. South Africa is home to over 80% of the world’s rhino population. It has long horns that are about 33 inches. The South African Mammal CAMP workshop was held in Johannesburg and during the course of the workshop, participants evaluated and compared the data submitted for each species in working groups, based on taxonomic groupings. There are about 220 noncetacean artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans. This is a list of the native wild mammal species recorded in South America. [4], South America suffered another major loss of mammal species in the Quaternary extinction event, which started around 12,500 cal BP, at roughly the time of arrival of Paleoindians, and may have lasted up to several thousand years. The odd-toed ungulates are browsing and grazing mammals. A mature buffalo weighs 1,100-2,200 pounds. Cheetahs can be as long as 28-35 inches at the shoulder and can weigh 46-156 pounds. The high species diversity is due to the many biomes that are present in this southern region of Africa. As of May 2012, the list contains 1,331 species, 340 genera, 62 families and 15 orders. Their closest extant relatives are the hippos, which are artiodactyls, from which cetaceans descended; cetaceans are thus also artiodactyls. The species is in imminent danger of extinction in the wild. This is a list of the native wild mammal species recorded in South America. Most rodents are small, although the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb). The armadillos are small mammals with a bony armored shell. South America's terrestrial mammals fall into three distinct groups: "old-timers", African immigrants and recent North American immigrants. Their much larger relatives, the pampatheres and glyptodonts, once lived in North and South America but became extinct following the appearance of humans. See the caterpillar identification help page.. South America's meager lagomorph diversity (6 species compared to 18 for North America north of Mexico) reflects their recent arrival and failure (so far) to diversify much. Not that giraffe, hippo or whale are small … South Africa’s bushveld and savannah regions are still home to large numbers of the mammals universally associated with Africa. [13] If, as some evidence suggests, perissodactyls originated in India,[14] both ungulate groups may have been of Gondwanan origin, despite being laurasiatheres. Their color patterns vary. Those that reached South America have usually been classified as gomphotheres, but sometimes instead as elephantids. It is in Plettenberg Bay that the Dolphin and Whale-watching industry is most organised. The buffalo is unpredictable and highly dangerous to humans with several deaths reported around their habitat. It feeds on fruits, leaves, and flowers. The order Primates includes the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. It is depicted on the coat of arm of Namibia where its current population is approximately 370,000. They are small shrew-like marsupials confined to the Andes. South Africa is world famous for its flora and fauna, and widely known for the Kruger National Park, among other conservation areas. In South America, shrews are only found in the north (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru), a legacy of their relatively recent immigration to the continent by way of Central America (where shrew species are considerably more diverse). Please note whilst every effort is made to provide accurate identifications and information errors could occur. Elephants are among the largest terrestrial animals in the world. For a complete list of endangered species in Africa, browse the Africa endangered species list. Shrews and solenodons closely resemble mice, hedgehogs carry spines, while moles are stout-bodied burrowers. Endangered species found in South Africa: Its distinguishing feature is the extremely long neck and legs and the distinctive coat patterns. Of the taxa from nonflying, nonmarine groups (992 species, 230 genera, 40 families and 12 orders), "old-timers" comprise 14% of species, 15% of genera, 20% of families and 42% of orders; African immigrants make up 38% of species, 30% of genera, 40% of families and 17% of orders; North American invaders constitute 49% of species 55% of genera, 40% of families and 50% of orders. Two mammals have become extinct: the blue antelope and the quagga. All 5 extant genera and 9 of 10 extant species are present in South America, the ancestral home of the group. The list consists of those species found in the nations or overseas territories of continental South America (including their island possessions, such as the Galápagos), as well as in Trinidad and Tobago and the Falkland Islands; Panama is not included. The tail is long and spotted. The gemsbok, also known as South African oryx, is a species of antelope that inhabits the arid areas of Southern Africa. South Africa is currently the 27th country in the world regarding amphibian species richness, and is the fifth such country in its bio-geographical territory after Madagascar, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and Tanzania. Moles are not found in the Americas south of northern Mexico. It is a large bovine with a shoulder height ranging from 3.3-5.6 feet. [5] While South America currently has no megaherbivore species weighing more than 1000 kg, prior to this event it had a menagerie of about 25 of them (consisting of gomphotheres, camelids, ground sloths, glyptodonts, and toxodontids – 75% of these being "old-timers"), dwarfing Africa's present and recent total of 6.[6]. The snake is responsible for most of the snake-bite deaths in Africa owing to its wide distribution and the aggressiveness. The adult tsessebe is 150-230 cm long. (The exception is the pygmy three-toed sloth, endemic to an island off Panama.) South America's rodent fauna today is largely an outgrowth of two spectacularly fortunate ancient "sweepstakes" dispersal events, each of which was followed by explosive diversification. Giraffe’s range extends from Chad to South Africa and is usually found in Savannah and woodland regions. It has a slender body and a deep chest with the body covered by a spotted coat. Didelphimorphia is the order of common opossums of the Western Hemisphere. A strange-looking creature with a humped body, a long snout, and a thick tail, aardvarks … Despite the long legs and neck, it has a small body. South African grassland forb species. The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals capable of flight. It has been listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN due to the substantial decline in its range. The puff adder averages 39.3 inches in length and weighs over 13.2 pounds. The infraclass Metatheria includes all living and extinct marsupials, but also includes some related extinct orders of mammals that are no longer considered marsupials, such as Sparassodonta. A final, all-inclusive taxon datasheet for each A Field Guide to the Mammals of Southern Africa. In South Africa, elephants can be found in several of the protected areas including Kruger National Park, Addo Elephant Park, and Knysna Elephant Park where visitors are allowed to take pictures with them. Superb book with first class descriptions and excellent photographs. It has a black or brown coat. A group consists of 15-30 members with the females hunting for food and the males protecting the pride. Available in English, Afrikaans and German. Lions are one of Africa’s apex predators with no other animals preying on them. There are 17 threatened species in South Africa, including the black rhino, pangolin and giant golden mole. Impressive in stature and size, they can grow up to 11 feet and weigh 3.5-6.5 tons. During the early Cenozoic, South America's only land connection was to Antarctica, so it was effectively cut off from most of the world; as the fragments of Gondwana continued to separate, this connection was lost, leaving South America an island continent. Illustrating the advantage of gaining a head start in colonizing a new land mass, sigmodontine rodents comprise 99.5% of all cricetid rodents in South America, but only 42% in Central America, 17% in Mexico and 7% in North America north of Mexico. At the order level, the "old-timers" are overrepresented because of their ancient local origins, while the African immigrants are underrepresented because of their "sweepstakes" mode of dispersal. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition. Elephants are among the largest terrestrial animals in the world. Sometimes the Bontebok, the Cape Springbok, t… Of all the big cats, lions are the only ones that live together in groups. South America is notable for its diversity of canids, having more genera than any other continent in spite of their relatively brief history there. Marine Life of Southern Africa. The infraorder Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. The greater kudu bull is an antelope species commonly found in woodlands across eastern and southern Africa. Since these mammals are nocturnal, they sleep inside burrows they dig and feed on roots, foliage, and other vegetable type material. Verreaux’s Eagle Owl (Giant Eagle Owl): the biggest owl in Africa. The gemsbok has a light-brownish gray coat with patches towards the bottom of the rump. Marine Mammals & Fish: The largest mammal of all – in South Africa and the world – is the blue whale, which can grow to 33 met res in length. Some 297 species of mammal have been recorded in South Africa, of which 30 species are considered threatened. This project is focussed on obtaining data with regards to the species richness and distribution of South A... Southern African Birds. Elephants are purely herbivorous and prefer to stay near water. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 Numerous ground sloths, some of which reached the size of elephants, were once present in both North and South America, as well as on the Antilles. Note: This list is inevitably incomplete, since new species are continually being recognized via discovery or reclassification. South American marsupials are thought to be ancestral to those of Australasia.[7]. Best known are the mammals, and the best known of these are the famous Big Five: elephant, lion, rhino, leopard and buffalo. It appears to be more closely related to Australian marsupials than to other Neotropic marsupials; this is a reflection of the South American origin of all Australasian marsupials.[7]. South America's terrestrial mammals fall into three distinct groups: "old-timers", African immigrants and recent North American immigrants. The corresponding figures are 10% and 27% for Central America, 2% and 10% for Mexico, 0.5% and 3% for North America north of Mexico, and 72% and 27% for recent endemic Caribbean rodents. Aardvark. The marsupials and xenarthrans are "old-timers", their ancestors having been present on the continent since at least the very early Cenozoic Era. The weight of even-toed ungulates is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. It is divided into four main groupings: strepsirrhines, tarsiers, monkeys of the New World (parvorder Platyrrhini), and monkeys and apes of the Old World. 5.0 out of 5 stars Best mammal guide to South Africa. From the Big Five to the charismatic penguins, South Africa is home to a variety of wildlife. South Africa: Drom: 011 27 72 118 4800 Sune: 011 27 79 873 5154. African Elephant Facts: Animals of Africa, South African Culture, Customs, and Traditions. But of the eight whale species found in South African waters (including the dramatic black-and-white killer whale), the most frequently seen … The large ear flaps are used to regulate the body temperature. Author: Prof Rudy can der Elst ~ Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban ( Article Type: Overview) South Africa is endowed with an exceptionally rich marine environment. The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). The bulls (male) are larger than the cows (female) with the males having large manes that run along their throat. The male weighs 137 kg while the female weighs 120 kg. Two of the four subspecies of black rhinos found in South Africa are the South-central and South-western species. South America's 22 extant genera compares with 10 in Central America, 1 in North America north of Mexico, 52 in Australia, 28 in New Guinea and 2 in Sulawesi. These two groups now comprise 36% and 60%, respectively, of all South American rodent species. By John Misachi on September 21 2018 in World Facts. The giraffe is the world's tallest terrestrial animal. Sequencing of collagen from fossils of one recently extinct species each of notoungulates and litopterns has indicated that these orders comprise a sister group to the perissodactyls. Reviewed in the United Kingdom on January 12, 2013. Southern Africa has a very rich avifauna with many endemic species. The Southern Africa’s Mammals Guide is a high quality 216-page book providing all the information you need to identify mammals when visiting Southern Africa’s Wildlife and Nature Reserves. They have several distinctive features including the long trunk (proboscis) that is used for both breathing and grasping objects. The head is small and rounded and the legs are also small. The presence of camelids in South America but not North America today is ironic, given that they have a 45-million-year-long history in the latter continent (where they originated), and only a 3-million-year history in the former. Rhinos are large, stocky animals commonly known for their short legs and two horns on their muzzle with the longer horn sitting at the front of the nose. Following the interchange with North America, South America's odd-toed ungulates included equids of genus Equus as well as tapirs. Postal Address: PO Box 141, Kestell 9860, South Africa The marsupials and xenarthrans are "old-timers", their ancestors having been present on the continent since at least the very early Cenozoic Era.