[116] In addition, the better economic profitability of other crops such as soybeans and maize, linked with investment in modern genetic technologies, has promoted shifts to other crops. Biological Control News Volume II, Number 10 October 1995, CSIRO Rodent Management Research Focus: Mice plagues, "ARS, Industry Cooperation Yields Device to Detect Insects in Stored Wheat", Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wheat&oldid=991277241, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles needing additional references from October 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from Citizendium, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Grain color (red, white or amber). [41] Root growth is likely to be prioritised in drought-adapted crops, while stem non-structural carbohydrate is prioritised in varieties developed for countries where disease is a bigger issue. A web page providing general knowledge on scientific names of common plants, fruits, vegetables and some common trees including scientific name of mehndi, pudina, ginger, turmeric, grains and cereals. Several factors are currently slowing the rate of global expansion of wheat production: population growth rates are falling while wheat yields continue to rise. Wheat normally needs between 110 and 130 days between sowing and harvest, depending upon climate, seed type, and soil conditions (winter wheat lies dormant during a winter freeze). By 1997, 81% of the developing world's wheat area was planted to semi-dwarf wheats, giving both increased yields and better response to nitrogenous fertilizer. [78], Wheat proteins have a low quality for human nutrition, according to the new protein quality method (DIAAS) promoted by the Food and Agriculture Organization. [51], Because wheat self-pollinates, creating hybrid varieties is extremely labor-intensive; the high cost of hybrid wheat seed relative to its moderate benefits have kept farmers from adopting them widely[52][53] despite nearly 90 years of effort. YIELD LOSS: Losses of 40 percent can be common with some fields totally destroyed. Harvested wheat grain that enters trade is classified according to grain properties for the purposes of the commodity markets. [67], Apart from mutant versions of genes selected in antiquity during domestication, there has been more recent deliberate selection of alleles that affect growth characteristics. These animals can cause significant damage to a crop by digging up and eating newly planted seeds or young plants. The varieties of wheat created through these methods are in the hundreds (going as far back as 1960), more of them being created in higher populated countries such as China. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass (Aegilops tauschii) to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat. Yields of pure wheat per unit area increased as methods of crop rotation were applied to long cultivated land, and the use of fertilizers became widespread. [102], The following table shows the nutrient content of wheat and other major staple foods in a raw form.[106]. lectotype designated by Duistermaat, Blumea 32: 174 (1987), Direct quotation: Grundas ST: Chapter: Wheat: The Crop, in. Abstract. [64] On 29 November 2012, an essentially complete gene set of bread wheat was published. Several B vitamins and other dietary minerals are in significant content. Korol & A. Beiles & T. Fahima. [98], While coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as a wheat allergy. that reduce the plant's sensitivity to gibberellic acid, a plant hormone that lengthens cells. Several systems exist to identify crop stages, with the Feekes and Zadoks scales being the most widely used. The last two sets of chromosomes came from wild goat-grass Aegilops tauschii 230,000–430,000 years ago. ", "Gliadin Peptides as Triggers of the Proliferative and Stress/Innate Immune Response of the Celiac Small Intestinal Mucosa", "Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors drive intestinal inflammation via activation of toll-like receptor 4", "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference", "Tables for Weights and Measurement: Crops", "Commodities: Latest Wheat Price & Chart", "Wheat production in 2017 from pick lists: Crops/World regions/Production quantity", "Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production", "Economic Analysis of Post-harvest Losses in Food Grains in India: A Case Study of Karnataka", "Stocktake on cropping and crop science for a diverse planet", "Umbers, Alan (2006, Grains Council of Australia Limited) Grains Industry trends in Production – Results from Today's Farming Practices", "Crops and livestock products/World List/Wheat/Export Quantity/2016 (pick list)", List of Commodity Delivery Dates on Wikinvest, Crop Disease Management Bulletin 631-98. "[61], Stomata (or leaf pores) are involved in both uptake of carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere and water vapor losses from the leaf due to water transpiration. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant, with finds dating back as far as 9600 BCE. [6][89][90], Consumed worldwide by billions of people, wheat is a significant food for human nutrition, particularly in the least developed countries where wheat products are primary foods. If the raw wheat is broken into parts at the mill, as is usually done, the outer husk or bran can be used several ways Q = Quality of Protein in terms of completeness without adjusting for digestability. In temperate countries the flag leaf, along with the second and third highest leaf on the plant, supply the majority of carbohydrate in the grain and their condition is paramount to yield formation. [5] World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. The combine loads the threshed wheat onto a trailer while moving. Selections are identified (shown to have the genes responsible for the varietal differences) ten or more generations before release as a variety or cultivar.[45]. [110] A USDA report revealed that in 1998, average operating costs were $1.43 per bushel and total costs were $3.97 per bushel. Worldwide, bread wheat has proved well adapted to modern industrial baking, and has displaced many of the other wheat, barley, and rye species that were once commonly used for bread making, particularly in Europe. [109] Some information providers, following CBOT practice, quote the wheat market in per ton denomination. In tropical areas, spot blotch (also known as Helminthosporium leaf blight) is also important. [68], Einkorn wheat (T. monococcum) is diploid (AA, two complements of seven chromosomes, 2n=14).[4]. English: wheat streak mosaic mite; EPPO code. Basic physiological investigation of these gas exchange processes has yielded valuable carbon isotope based methods that are used for breeding wheat varieties with improved water-use efficiency. Aceria tritici Shevtchenko et al., 1970; International Common Names. In Canada different varieties are blended prior to sale. [22], The cultivation of emmer reached Greece, Cyprus and Indian subcontinent by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, and Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. They also concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, but brought the domesticated grains with them from an as yet unidentified location elsewhere. Wheat has also been the subject of mutation breeding, with the use of gamma, x-rays, ultraviolet light, and sometimes harsh chemicals. The device uses electrical signals to detect the insects as the wheat is being milled. Learn more about wheat in this article. RHt genes were introduced to modern wheat varieties in the 1960s by Norman Borlaug from Norin 10 cultivars of wheat grown in Japan. In domesticated wheat, grains are larger, and the seeds (inside the spikelets) remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. sphacrococcum (Perc.) [128] To reduce the amount of wheat lost to post-harvest pests, Agricultural Research Service scientists have developed an "insect-o-graph," which can detect insects in wheat that are not visible to the naked eye. Spikes are awnless or short-awned and dense. [21], Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 (at Cayonu) and 8400 BCE (Abu Hureyra), that is, in the Neolithic period. Gom Wheat Triticum aestivum Poaceae (Gramineae) 3. Their shorter rachis segments lead to spikelets packed closer together. Wild emmer is itself the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. urartu and a wild goatgrass such as Aegilops searsii or Ae. Early in the season, many species of birds, including the long-tailed widowbird, and rodents feed upon wheat crops. [127] Rodents can also cause major losses during storage, and in major grain growing regions, field mice numbers can sometimes build up explosively to plague proportions because of the ready availability of food. However, other natural forms of wheat exist. emmer and durum wheat) are derived from wild emmer, T. dicoccoides. It is used to make bread, pasta, cake, crackers, cookies, pastries, flour, and many other foodstuffs. [48] A project in the UK, led by Rothamsted Research has aimed to raise wheat yields in the country to 20t/ha by 2020, but in 2018 the UK record stood at 16t/ha, and the average yield was just 8t/ha. [94], Manufacturers of foods containing wheat as a whole grain in specified amounts are allowed a health claim for marketing purposes in the United States, stating: "low fat diets rich in fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables may reduce the risk of some types of cancer, a disease associated with many factors" and "diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and rich in fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain some types of dietary fiber, particularly soluble fiber, may reduce the risk of heart disease, a disease associated with many factors". This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. The earliest archaeological evidence for wheat cultivation comes from the Levant and Turkey. E raw cassava As the traits that improve wheat as a food source also involve the loss of the plant's natural seed dispersal mechanisms, highly domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. [103] A 2017 study in mice demonstrated that ATIs exacerbate preexisting inflammation and might also worsen it at extraintestinal sites. [65] Random shotgun libraries of total DNA and cDNA from the T. aestivum cv. At the protein level, we found no evidence to support an increased immunostimulatory potential of modern winter wheat. [8], Wheat futures are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade, Kansas City Board of Trade, and Minneapolis Grain Exchange, and have delivery dates in March (H), May (K), July (N), September (U), and December (Z).[121]. Thus technological innovation and scientific crop management with synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation and wheat breeding were the main drivers of wheat output growth in the second half of the century. Preferred Scientific Name. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. Wheat is the dominant crop in temperate countries being used for human food and livestock feed. Improved agricultural husbandry has more recently included threshing machines, reaper-binder machines (the 'combine harvester'), tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, and better varieties (see Green Revolution and Norin 10 wheat). With the exception of Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 dated remains of domesticated emmer wheat were found in the earliest levels of Tell Aswad, in the Damascus basin, near Mount Hermon in Syria. [8] In addition to gaps in farming system technology and knowledge, some large wheat grain-producing countries have significant losses after harvest at the farm and because of poor roads, inadequate storage technologies, inefficient supply chains and farmers' inability to bring the produce into retail markets dominated by small shopkeepers. Wheat is one of the oldest and most important of the cereal crops. About 95% of wheat produced worldwide is common wheat; it is the most widely grown of all crops and the cereal with the highest monetary yield. [6] In 2017, world production of wheat was 772 million tonnes, with a forecast of 2019 production at 766 million tonnes,[7] making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. There are many wheat diseases, mainly caused by fungi, bacteria, and viruses. G raw sweet potato [23] "The early Egyptians were developers of bread and the use of the oven and developed baking into one of the first large-scale food production industries. Within a species, wheat cultivars are further classified by wheat breeders and farmers in terms of: The named classes of wheat in English are more or less the same in Canada as in the US, as broadly the same commercial cash crop strains can be found in both. [112], In 2017, global wheat production was 772 million tonnes, led by China, India, and Russia, collectively providing 41% of the world total. After 1955 however, there was a ten-fold increase in the rate of wheat yield improvement per year, and this became the major factor allowing global wheat production to increase. [10] Significant efforts in plant breeding are being made to develop lysine-rich wheat varieties, without success as of 2017. A raw yellow dent corn Compact wheats (e.g., club wheat Triticum compactum, but in India T. sphaerococcum) are closely related to common wheat, but have a much more compact ear. [10], Note: All nutrient values including protein and fiber are in %DV per 100 grams of the food item. Mike Abram for Farmers' Weekly. Bread Wheat Genus and Other Classification. For this reason, awned varieties could become more widely grown due to climate change. [10][81] Because the proteins present in the wheat endosperm (gluten proteins) are particularly poor in lysine, white flours are more deficient in lysine compared with whole grains. Triticum cereale Schrank (1789) Triticum sativum Lamk (1779) Triticum vulgare Vill. [78][98] Coeliac disease affects about 1% of the general population in developed countries. Shot wheat, Triticum aestivum subsp. As grain exports from Russia ceased in the First World War, grain production in Kansas doubled. These names are important because they allow people throughout the world to communicate unambiguously about animal species. Around 10,000 years ago, wild einkorn and emmer wheat were domesticated as part of the origins of agriculture in the fertile crescent. [119], There are substantial differences in wheat farming, trading, policy, sector growth, and wheat uses in different regions of the world. Wheat buyers use these to decide which wheat to buy, as each class has special uses, and producers use them to decide which classes of wheat will be most profitable to cultivate. In sprouted or cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these grains is remarkably different from that of raw form of these grains reported in this table. The result is that when threshed, the wheat ear breaks up into spikelets. Raw wheat can be ground into flour or, using hard durum wheat only, can be ground into semolina; germinated and dried creating malt; crushed or cut into cracked wheat; parboiled (or steamed), dried, crushed and de-branned into bulgur also known as groats. Preferred Scientific Name. [129] Tracking insect infestations in stored grain is critical for food safety as well as for the marketing value of the crop. [79][10], In 100 grams, wheat provides 1,370 kilojoules (327 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of multiple essential nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, manganese, phosphorus and niacin (table). The scientific name of Bread Wheat is the botanical name or formal name. 207–21, "AFLP analysis of a collection of tetraploid wheats indicates the origin of emmer and hard wheat domestication in southeast Turkey", "Britons may have imported wheat long before farming it", "Ancient genomes indicate population replacement in Early Neolithic Britain", "Ancient DNA from 8400 Year-Old Çatalhöyük Wheat: Implications for the Origin of Neolithic Agricultur", "The science in detail – Wheats DNA – Research – Archaeology – The University of Sheffield", Fertilising for High Yield and Quality - Cereals, "Shifts in stomatal traits following the domestication of plant species", "Labeling of Fructans in Winter Wheat Stems", "Wheat genotypic variation in dynamic fluxes of WSC components in different stem segments under drought during grain filling", "Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat", "Decline in climate resilience of European wheat", Guinness World Records - Highest Wheat Yield, Farmers Weekly - Lincs grower scoops top wheat and rapeseed yield awards, Agricultural and Horticultural Development Board - 2018 GB Harvest Progress Results, "Plant genetic resources: What can they contribute toward increased crop productivity? As soon as western Canadian wheat is delivered by producers to a grain elevator the wheat becomes the property of the Canadian Wheat Board, [54], F1 hybrid wheat cultivars should not be confused with wheat cultivars deriving from standard plant breeding. "Overall, the harvest year had a more significant effect on protein composition than the cultivar. In the United States over 500 varieties are available. This spontaneous hybridisation created the tetraploid species Triticum turgidum (durum wheat) 580,000–820,000 years ago. Neolithic cultures first appear in Britain circa 4000 bc, a millennium after they appeared in adjacent areas of continental Europe. English: bread wheat; soft wheat; spring wheat; wheat (bread-); winter wheat Wheat by any other name still has gluten and if you have celiac disease or are gluten-intolerant, you need to avoid wheat in all its forms and varieties. To obtain the grain, further processing, such as milling or pounding, is needed to remove the hulls or husks. compactum). The common name of this plant in Spanish is El pan de trigo. May 17, 2011. [45] Commercial hybrid wheat seed has been produced using chemical hybridizing agents, plant growth regulators that selectively interfere with pollen development, or naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility systems. If a technical scientific name were needed it would be “dihydrogen monoxide” according to the rules for naming inorganic compounds. The popularity of foods made from wheat flour creates a large demand for the grain, even in economies with significant food surpluses.
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